The Secret Reasons of the Darfur Genocide: fake Arabic imposed on Non-Arabs


By Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

December 5, 2006 (

Only through an exhaustive, in-depth approach to the reasons that have caused the ongoing Darfur Genocide, and following a thorough understanding of the criminal work of the French, namely the fabrication of a false language, an inexistent culture, and a bogus-nation, can people realize the tragedy befallen on the various peoples of Sudan – that are all non-Arabs.

All people in Khartoum know already that they live the end of a long tyrannical experience; they have not identified the forthcoming solution, but they have the real feeling that the nightmare named ‘Sudan’ has already its expiry date. It was about time!

No one knows the details of the final, ultimate division of Sudan; even the number of the emanating countries is not precisely told. Will there finally be a Free Nubia? Will the Red Sea coast’s Beja / Blemmyes ultimately get the freedom they have fought so many centuries for? What will the various borders among the possibly 6 or 7 countries in the east of Chad look like?

The only issue they have no doubt about is Peace; Peace will be achieved only when all these various peoples and ethnic – religious groups will get their independence and enjoy their self-determination and freedom, following the cancellation of the murderous and inhuman frame of ‘Sudan’, a name that means just Death.

Most of the people who currently live in the ‘Tusk’ (as Khartoum’s name means in Arabic) originate from the provinces, lands tyrannized and terrorized by the abominable Janjaweed squads of the African Hitler, the bloody ‘president’ Al Bashir of Sudan. Their strong hope is that they will soon be allowed to move back to their motherlands where the only way to establish peace is just to remove the murderous Khartoum Pan-Arabist militias, the ominous Janjaweed. This is the current state of the racist thugs, who are supported by the most disreputable organization of all times: the Arab League. For their inhuman Arab-Nazi ideal, only Arabic must be left as existing language for all the country’s populations that are entirely non-Arab! In the name of a fake language, they would exterminate more than Ossama bin Laden has dreamt to!

Sudan 2006: a dysfunctional ad antihuman anachronism

How could one describe Bashir’s Arabo-Nazi Sudan in brief? Old structures that survived due to the indifference of many simply cannot be sustained anymore. Old-fashioned tribal government, unable to cope with the world developments, that will be replaced by the natural forces of change and improvement.

Links that existed have disappeared, interconnections that were in place have been doomed, and other forces seem ready to appear in the forefront of the political life. Before the old ultimately ‘dies’, a last effort for survival is usually expressed. This is mostly an ill-fated attempt to reassert the supposed ‘old values’, a kind of late moment Habsburg royalists or pan-Ottoman intellectuals at the Twilight of the Caliphate.

In our brutal times, in Sudan it takes the hideous and criminal form of the hyena-like Pan-Arabist militias. Can an effective and complete dismemberment bring a long lasting peace, even built on the cenotaph of half a million Darfuris mercilessly butchered at the hands of the Arab League thugs?

Is it by mistake or by coincidence that, both in 2005 and 2006, Parade magazine’s David Wallechinsky ranked the Arab League puppet, butcher – president al-Bashir as no 1 in its list of the world’s ten worst dictators?

Despite the impressively fast deterioration of the overall situation in Sudan, one may still have reasons to be optimistic. Before we present a plan of rapid force deployment that would give a lethal hit to the most murderous follower of Hitler, we believe we should extensively present Sudan’s historical – political background and current realities that are mostly unknown to people allover the world.

1. Sudan’s true identity is 100% African – Sudan was never Arabic.

More than Egypt and Carthage, it is Sudan, ancient Kush - the famous and real Ethiopia of the Ancient Greek and Latin sources (that has nothing to do with present day Abyssinia) - that represents Ancient Africa in its most authentic cultural expression. Carthaginians are Phoenicians, Semites, who found their New City (in Phoenician: Qart Hadasht) around the year 800 BCE, at a moment a Sudanese dynasty was ruling Sudan and Upper (southern) Egypt!

Ancient Abyssinians, centered at Axum, are Yemenites, so also Semites, who just crossed the Bal al Mandeb straits of the Red Sea, and their first rise to significant state and civilization does not antedate the beginning of the Christian Era, which means very late for what happened in Sudan.

Only Egypt developed an earlier and therefore longer civilization on African soil, going back to 3000 BCE, but for long – and due to false colonial concepts of History – Egypt was thought as ‘Egypt’, not Africa. Quite strangely, despite some early intermingling with Semitic emigrants from Canaan, Egypt was always a predominantly Khammitic country with population not very different from that of Ancient Sudan, since the Kushites belong to the great Khammitic group of peoples and languages along with present day Berbers (in Algeria) and Oromos (in Abyssinia). This important dimension of the Ancient Egyptian is undermined, passed under silence, or even opposed by the three best political allies and – at the same time – true global curses of the 21st century, namely the French Colonialism, the Arab Nationalism and the Islamic Terrorism.

2. The Great African Civilization: Kushitic and Meroitic Ethiopia in Sudan

Starting with Kerma, in the area of the 3rd Nile cataract (350 km in the south of the present day Sudanese – Egyptian borders), at the very end of the 3rd millennium, civilization expanded further to the south during the next millennia. Yet, the unearthed monuments at Kerma Defufa show an advance in civilization similar to if not higher than that in Proto-Helladic Greece and in Early Hatti Anatolia (Turkey)!

One of the most authentic moments of African History finds Taharqa ‘Qore’ at Napata (today’s Karima, 750 km in the south of the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border) and ‘Pharaoh’ at Thebes of Egypt (present day Luqsor, 500 km in the north of the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border), since the Theban priests of Amun supported him at the throne of a divided Egypt in order to face the Libyan princes raised up to the throne of the Delta capital Sais by the Heliopolitan priesthood. Top person of the 25th Kushitic, ‘Ethiopian’ - according to Manetho - dynasty of Egypt, successor to Piankhi, Shabaka, and Shabataka, and predecessor to unfortunate Tanutamon, Taharqa was buried under his pyramid at Napata (today’s El Kurru village nearby Karima) prolonging therefore for about 1000 years in Sudan an Egyptian mortuary architecture that had already been terminated in Egypt.

With the Assyrians controlling Egypt (following the three successive Assyrian invasions of Egypt, 671 BCE under Assarhaddon, and 669 and 666 under Assurbanipal) and expelling Tanutamon and the Kushites, the ‘Ethiopians’ (in Greek it means the ‘black faced people’) of Sudan were limited in the natural and traditional limits of Ancient Sudan, from the second Nile cataract (at the area of present day Sudanese – Egyptian borders) to the fifth cataract and the area where affluent Atbara (in Ancient Greek Astabaras) joins the united Nile. But facing twice within 70 years attacks from the North and twofold destruction of Napata (in 595 by Egyptians led by Psammetichus II along with Jewish, Greek, Aramaean, Carian and Phoenician mercenaries, and in 525 by Persians led by Kambudjiya – Cambyses, the Achaemenidian invader of Egypt), they transferred their capital much in the south, 650 km in the south of Karima alongside the Nile, at present day Bagrawiyah. The Ancient Greek name of that place, Meroe, gives the modern favourite term of the world academia for the third great period of pre-Christian Sudanese history: Meroitic (450 BCE – 370 CE), as differentiated from Kushitic (850 – 500 BCE) and from the 3rd – 2nd mill. Kerma.

We have splendid monuments from Sudan, dating back to that period, which corresponds to what we call as Classic and Roman Antiquity in the Western Mediterranean. Practically speaking, at the times of Pericles, Alexander, Ptolemy II and Caesar, Ancient Sudanese, Ethiopians as they were called within the Ancient Greek and Latin texts, kept building pyramids. Except a forest of pyramids we find at Bagrawiyah (Meroe), great temples and impressive palaces, sumptuous baths, breadth taking water reservoirs, and massive fortresses have been unearthed in Meroe, Mussawarat as Sufrah, Naqah, Wad ben Naqah, and Basa, thanks to the pioneering work of Shinnie, Torok and many other scholars.

An impressive and powerful country at the southern border of Egypt was of greater interest for all ancient times historians, travelers, researchers, and authors. Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Strabo were concerned by Meroitic ‘Ethiopia’, and of course Heliodorus’ ‘Aithiopica’ is a supreme source of related information mixed however with mythological interpretations and imaginative narratives. Who was not fascinated with the famous ‘Table of the Sun’ said to be the epicenter of Solar Cult at Meroe, the capital of Ethiopia?

Having relative easiness in reading the texts of the earlier, Kushitic phase, since at those days Egyptian Hieroglyphic was extensively employed as religious, official and administrative language at Napata, we are still in need of an answer to both, the Meroitic Hieroglyphic (established out of use of Egyptian Hieroglyphic alphabet’s signs) and the Meroitic Cursive (derived from the previous), writings that were introduced in the Meroitic period but have not yet been deciphered. This is the reason we still rely very much on Egyptian Hieroglyphic and Demotic, Coptic, Ancient Greek and Latin sources, as far as Meroitic Ethiopia is concerned. We have a plethora of historical sources that document the bilateral relations that were mostly very good either between Ptolemaic Egypt and Meroitic Ethiopia, or between the Roman Empire (as successor state form to the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt) and Meroitic Ethiopia.

3. Abundant historical evidence from the three Sudanese Christian states

Following a millennium of commercial and cultural interaction with Egypt and Africa, Sudanese Ethiopia collapsed under the attack of the Axumite Abyssinian Christian king Ezana at 370 CE. After a brief Abyssinian occupation of part of the Meroitic Ethiopian kingdom, which helped Ezana justify the christening of his country through usurpation of the name Ethiopia and through a specific interpretation of a Biblical verse, the entire area of today’s Northern Sudan adhered to Christianity. This was not accepted easily however, and depopulated areas and archeological strata suggest that large part of the Ancient Sudanese Meroites left and emigrated (via Blue Nile and Banishangul province of Abyssinia) to the south of present day Abyssinia, where they constituted the ancestors of the modern Kushitic Oromo people, the oppressed majority of that unfortunate country.

Three Christian states have been formed around the middle of the 5th century CE, namely Nobatia in the north with capital at Faras, at the area of present day Sudanese – Egyptian border, Makkuria in the center, between the 3rd and the 6th cataracts of the Nile, having Dongola Agouza as capital at 550 km in the south of Faras, and Alodia in the south, centered around today’s Khartoum.

One has to bear in mind that in the Antiquity the jungle was extended further in the north and at the Meroitic times it was almost reaching the area of Khartoum. Present day Butana desert land was mostly green, and delimited by Atbara river, Blue Nile river (both rivers’ sources are located at the Tana lake area, and are not far one from another), and the united Nile’s part from Khartoum (where the White joins the Blue Nile) to the point Atbara river joins the united Nile, gave good reason to ancient Greek and Latin geographers to call the entire area Nesos / Insula (island) Meroe.

Various alliances characterized the three Christian Sudanese states that lasted more than a millennium! Nobatia was exposed to Coptic Monophysitic influences coming from Egypt; it imposed therefore Coptic as holy, religious and administrative language. As an early opponent to the state of Nobatia, Makkouria had to find a strong supporter and ally in the sense that ‘the enemy of my enemy becomes my friend’. The Orthodox Greeks living in Egypt and the Patriarch of Constantinople, the top religious authority in the Eastern Roman Empire, were constantly engaged in long disputes and longer fights with the Copts of Egypt. So, Makkouria adopted Greek as holy, religious and administrative language, and the Makkourian priests of Jesus, imitating the Meroitic priests of Amun, wrote down their language in Greek characters, but because of lack of many bilingual documents Makkourian, like Meroitic, has not yet been deciphered. Alodia seemed always in good terms with its great northern neighbor, Makkouria. We have actually very poor documentation about this state, contrarily to the other two, and almost all evidence originates from Soba, its capital, excavated at 15 km distance from Khartoum.

In the very beginning Nobatia was the stronger state, especially because after the middle of the 7th century and the Islamic occupation of Egypt, the south of Egypt escaped totally from the Caliphate’s authority and was therefore annexed by and ruled from Faras. The good times lasted about 200 years, since the mounting pressure from the Toulounid state of Egypt could not be faced by Nobatia that first lost its territories in Egypt, and second compromised with Makkouria, and even merged with its Christian southern rival. Makkouria controlled for several centuries the south of Egypt and the north of Sudan from the area of Aswan to Khartoum. After its collapse in the 13th – 14th c., Alodia was expanded over the southern provinces of Makkouria, and finally in the 16th century succumbed to the African Muslim state of Funj.

4. The non-Arabic character of Sudan’s Islamization

Through all the aforementioned it becomes clear that Islam was diffused in Sudan first through Egypt in the North, and second through Saharan Africa in the central area of Sudan. As far as the Red Sea coast is concerned, it had actually been detached and become part of the Caliphate, but the traditional Yemenite navigation was attested in this case, as well as in the areas of the present day Eritrea and Somalia. It is out of the question to think of an ‘Arabic’ occupation, since the Arabs were not skillful in navigation, and had no tradition in seafaring. And of course, last but not least, Yemenites may be Semitic but they are very different from Arabs.

It is also clear that Islam through Egypt and the southern Mediterranean coast expanded in Sahara, at a moment the Christian states of Sudan were still there. Great monuments of Christian Sudan, like the monastery Al Ghazali, nearby Nuri on the Nile bank opposite to Karima, consist in great gems of the Cultural Heritage of the entire Mankind, not only of the Sudanese and not only of the Christians.

Islam controlled the area of northern and central Sudan, as far in the south as the 18th century Ottoman advance, but this is a matter of 400 years, and in very limited area in the north of 600 to 700 years. But certainly the Nobatian, Makkourian and Alodian kingdoms disappeared totally and all the descendants of their population got islamized or emigrated to Egypt and other countries.

5. Nubians throughout Sudan and Egypt

Focusing on the Kushitic – Meroitic majority that formed the backbone of the Culture and the Civilization in the area Ancient Greeks and Romans called ‘Ethiopia’, i.e. present day Sudan, we must always bear in mind that this people has been one – not the only – factor of development and progress in the area. It would be definitely erroneous to take the central role they played in Politics, Religion, Culture, Scripture, Architecture and Art as an exclusive one, as far as Ancient Sudan is concerned. But, of course, admittedly they were the great builders of the outright majority of the monuments we have found and/or unearthed until now in the south of Egypt and in the north of the juncture between the Blue and the White Niles.

Credit to these monuments, as well as to several monuments in Egypt itself, has to be given also to another, equally old, people, who almost never excelled in Politics and in Administration, but were omnipresent and ubiquitous at the banks of the Nile over so many millennia.

We refer to the famous ‘golden’ ones, as their name suggests; was it - by the way - theirs? As long as Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic documentation goes back, so do early references we have to this people, who was named after the Ancient Egyptian word for ‘gold’, Nub. The most common interpretation has it that the Nubians were living at the edge of the desert, and in areas where gold mines, like those of Wadi Allaki, attracted the interest of the early pharaonic administration. Since they were living in that area, the Egyptians called them in this way. We have plenty of references of all sorts, textual, epigraphic, pictorial and sculptural to this people, and within Egyptian hieroglyphic texts several ancient Nubian words have been preserved, mostly personal names. But we will certainly never come to know whether they used that name to denominate themselves.

Nubians were living among ancient Egyptians, but they were ostensible mostly in Upper Egypt. They were also at home in the area of Kush, ‘Ethiopia’, i.e. present day Sudan. Modern scholars, having collected Nubian linguistic material even among the not yet deciphered Meroitic scriptures, are classifying ancient Nubian as Nilo-Saharan language, which means totally different from either the Semitic or the Khammitic languages, unrelated to both, the Ancient Egyptian and the Kushitic – Meroitic. The prevailing opinion is to consider the link between the Ancient Nubians and the modern Nubians as strong. Modern Nubians live from Luqsor in Egypt to Atbara in Sudan, and this means that their land is no less than 1750 km long! In Egypt Nubians speak Kinzi and Fudjeki (also called Fidjikawi), whereas in Sudan one of the major dialects is Halfawi, which is spoken around Wadi Halfa, and after the erection of the Aswan High Dam, also in the area of Halfa Guedida, not far from Kessala and the Eritrean border, since large part of the Halfawi population did not like to reside in the re-located in the desert Wadi Halfa that is only a shadow of the original African beauty of the old times Wadi Halfa at the banks of the Nile! Going further to the south, one crosses respectively the areas of Soukkot and Mahas (both between Wadi Halfa and Dongola, and delimitated from each other between Sadinga and Sulb/Soleb), and then the realm of Danglawi.

6. Pan-Arabic Anti-Nubian Racism is worse than Hitler’s Anti-Semitism.

Nobatia, the northern Christian kingdom of Sudan, consists in the only real Nubian state in the World History, and at the same time it is the only time that a state bore the ethnic and national name of the Nubians. Nubians are terribly oppressed in present day Egypt and Sudan, because of the imposed Arabic nationalism that undermines the historical importance of the Nubian as language, and consists in a massively expressed racism against Nubian. Practices have been numerous and sophisticated to instigate among Nubians a feeling of linguistic inferiority – in comparison with Arabic –, and as such these efforts are more perilous and more anti-human than the current Pan-Arabic anti-Semitism, or the 20th century ‘classical’ Nazi anti-Semitism, in the sense that the perverted work takes the form of Nubian self-intoxication and self-indoctrination with anti-Nubian ideologies towards which the self-intoxicated Nubians cannot express any criticism. This method that employs Islam for hideous and anti-human plans is a most sulphurous and vicious tactics in the sense of victimizing an entire nation and engulfing millions of people into cultural, linguistic and national self-extermination. Compared to this, the worst ethnic cleansing in this regard is just an innocent act!

If one compares the percentage of the ethnic minority (around 7%) and the percentage of Nubian graduates of universities (inferior to 0.1%) in Egypt, one is appalled and feels indignation to an unprecedented extent because of this unique case of criminal act of national extinction. The situation in Sudan is certainly not better!

As a consequence to this barbaric situation, Nubians, although they still have a great feeling of pride for their remarkable time trajectory throughout the last 40 – 45 centuries of Human History, are criminally deprived from the correct Nubian national education that would reveal to them the greatness of the Ancient Nubian religion, culture and civilization, the keys to their self-knowledge, and to the monuments that are particular to them, like the temple of the Nubian god Maluli (in Ancient Greek Mandulis) at Kalabsha (Ancient Greek Talmis), etc.

7. Beja – Blemmyes, and many other peoples and tribes.

One should bear in mind that the Eastern and the Western deserts in both, Egypt and the Sudan, were not empty areas, but they consisted in cradle of particular cultures and peoples whose achievements we have every reason to admire. Desert tribes and peoples have been constantly interacting with Egyptians, Kushites and Nubians in the valley of the Nile. What is amazing with peoples like the Beja, who are known through Egyptian Hieroglyphic, Ancient Greek and Latin sources, is that although for millennia they had continuous contacts with the valley of the Nile, and were involved in all sorts of activities there, from trade to cult and from occasional work to committed worship, they did not take the decision to settle in the Nile valley but created an eternal coming and going of exchanges, contacts and - at unfortunate times - wars. They were probably sharing more things with the Nubians, and at the times of Late Antiquity they proved to be the strongest supporters of Isis, Horus, Hathor, and the other paragons of Late Egyptian Religion and Cult. We find them intervening to drive pigs out of the holy place, the temple of Maluli at Talmis / Kalabsha, and we know very well that they arrived up to the point of obtaining the concession of the priests of Isis at Philae (Pa Irek, the Island of the End, in Ancient Egyptian, 5 km in the south of Aswan in the area of the first cataract that actually has been transformed into a lake between the two dams, al Khazzan built 1902 and High Dam built 1964, of Aswan) to take the holy statue of the goddess in the desert, in their places, once per year, when a holy occasion was occurring to them, in order to worship her there and then have her return to her ‘home’ at Philae!

In ancient times, the Blemmyes seem to have moved from an earlier location in the Western Desert (certainly always at the area of southern Egypt around Aswan and further in the south in Sudan until the third cataract area) to the Eastern Desert, and currently we find them in the Eastern Desert and closer to the Red Sea coast than to the Nile valley in both Egypt and the Sudan. Their name, rather pronounced Biga in the modern Egyptian Arabic language, is permanently close to the island of Philae, since it became the modern name of an island next to the Isis temple island, namely the so-called Abaton in Ancient Greek, i.e. the island where nobody is allowed to set foot, the place of which the Ancient Egyptians had mythologized as the burial place of the dead body of Osiris, husband and brother to Isis. Certainly, the bulk of the present day Bega people is to be found in Sudan, not in Egypt.

8. The collapse of real Islam, the diffusion of religious fanaticism and barbarism in the Middle East, and the colonial interference and involvement

Equally deprived from their rights to a linguistically, culturally, educationally, socially, financially and nationally respectable life, the Beja have been another victim of the imposition of the false ideology of Pan-Arabism.

In this regard, it is essential to recall that there is no prescription in Islam according to which every new adherent to that religion should ‘forget’, ‘abandon’ or ‘delete’ his mother tongue, if it happens to be other than Arabic. There is no prescription that the Coran should not be translated in other languages, or that education must be offered in Arabic. Then, where this problematic situation has been based on?

As is known, the Islamic world perceived the Crusades in a very negative way. Although Islam was victorious at the end, the shock led many people accept irrelevant approaches and ill-conceived ideas of a few low-level philosophers, who under other circumstances would have been rejected by the cultured and educated people of Baghdad, Kufa, Shiraz, Konya, Tabriz, Sivas, Balkh, Granada, Kairwan, and Cairo. One among them was Ibn Taimiya, who irrevocably opted for a low-level and, properly speaking, anti-Islamic introspection and for persistence on traditional thought and on rigidly perceived behavioural system. Literary interpretation of the Coran and the Hadith, rejection of the inquisitive spirit of the exploration, self-limitation to an erroneously estimated orthopraxy (as a guarantee to the long desired orthodoxy) and blind opposition to any innovative thinking characterized this system that found many followers among poorly educated religious leaders (sheikhs), who saw in it an easy way to maintain spiritual and (through spiritual) social – economic – political power.

Speaking very briefly and schematically, the system got gradually momentum because the political establishments of the Islamic World, and mostly the Ottoman Empire and Iran, were involved in wars that were justifying the aforementioned philosophical system that was later incorporated into many theological subsystems and theoretical subdivisions. The political power was dedicated to ferocious wars with many rising Western, Christian, countries, and the educated elite was focused on its intellectual endeavours, having always greater difficulties in recruiting disciples to serve the Knowledge and the Search within Islam.

At the end of a span of 300 years (schematically 1300 – 1600), the situation started becoming extremely preoccupying, and analphabetic masses, besotted and conducted by – literarily speaking – Satanic sheikhs, were demanding from the Sultan the execution of brilliant worldwide top scientists (whose works were translated in the West, like those of Ulugh Beg) because they ‘were practicing Black Magic’!

Just 350 years ago the Christian World could not face the Islamic World in terms of either science and knowledge or political power and financial wealth. But the Ottoman Empire, Safevid Iran and the Mughal Empire of India were hit in a way that would soon become visible to their external enemies. All the sperm of ignorance, barbarism and idiocy was there, and it was already impossible to uproot it.

Two major events, political and intellectual, worsened the case. The diffusion of Wahhabism, a supposedly orthodox but purely Satanist ideology, if viewed and evaluated through the eyes of earlier great Islamic philosophers, brought about a speedier way to collapse. It was not accepted by the ruling elite, quite contrarily it was combated, but its diffusion among the masses was spectacular in the late 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries.

The rise of the Colonial Powers put an early end to the Muslim Empire of India, and placed the Sultan and the Shah among five formidable enemies. They both had to face:

  • a. the Colonial countries’ pressure (first felt by the Ottoman Empire in the cases of Egypt, Greece, Algeria, and first perceived by Safevid Iran in the Indian Ocean, India and Oman)
  • b. the supported by the Colonial powers rise of Russia in the North, namely the northern Black Sea coast, the Caucasus area and the entire Central Asia.
  • c. each other, in cases of many smartly and diplomatically instigated disputes that led repeatedly the two Islamic Superpowers to fratricide wars.
  • d. the selected among minorities (Armenians, Copts, Aramaeans of Syria, Lebanese Christians, Greeks, Arabic speaking people in Palestine, Mesopotamia and Arabia) and besotted in Western universities ‘elite’ under formation, since these people were getting erroneous education along with a great dose of anti-Ottoman or anti-Iranian poison (before being always abandoned and betrayed by treacherous France and distant England), and
  • e. the always stronger perverted sheikhs and their Wahhabi followers. In this last case, the Colonial involvement took its most malicious character, since the Western scholars who took note of the situation did their best to make it even worse and more difficult for the Sultan, although ideologically they were closer to him than to the obscurantist Wahhabis! The help offered by the Colonial powers to the extremist and barbaric movement was of course not direct of character. It was an indirect attempt of creating situations in which the Wahhabis would gain more ground, and the central Ottoman authority would loose more ground. At the end, in 1916-7, the Palestinians were deserting the ranks of the Ottoman army, permitting British to reach (coming from Egypt) Jerusalem, and prepare the final, ultimate death of Palestine.

The entire situation reached a culminating point with the diffusion of Arabic nationalism, a bogus ideological fabrication that engulfed Arabic speaking Muslims to absolute confusion and paranoia. This situation brings us to the first half of the 20th century, from where all the problematic issues that characterize present day Middle East emanate. (to be continued)